Never confuse education with intelligence, you can have a PhD and still be an idiot.
- Richard Feynman -


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When calling a method changes the state of the object. Also used when calling a method has an effect on the world outside of the JVM, such as logging or printing to standard out.

A side-effect-free method is more "pure" like a mathematical function. Side-effect-free methods instead just produce a value based on its input parameters, like calling Math.sqrt(9.0) (produces 3.0, the square root of 9).